Hyperconjugation Resonance of Cations...Notice how the hybridization of the methyl group has to change prior to the formation of the pi bond.

Hyperconjugation Resonance of Radicals

Resonance of Benzene...Note that the bond order of the carbon-carbon bonds in benzene is 1.5 not 1 and 2. 

Resonance of Electron Withdrawing Groups with pi Bonds

Resonance of Electron Donating Groups with pi Bonds

Acidity of Phenol...The phenoxide anion is well stabilized by resonance.

Basicity of Aniline...The electron pair on the nitrogen atom is delocalized and is less available for sharing.

Copyright August 2000 by Richard C. Banks...all rights reserved. This copyright applies to the animated gif files linked to this page.